Energy

Energy (68)

Sierra Leone's Energy Revolution Campaign Progressing

The Government of Sierra Leone last week provided an update on the progress of its Energy Revolution initiative to supply basic power to all of its citizens by 2025.

 

Announced by President Ernest Bai Koroma in May, the Energy Revolution pledged to provide at least 250,000 homes with solar units and introduce household solar to all 149 chiefdoms by the end of next year, as well as to deliver modern power to 1 million people by 2020.

 

As of the start of October, results included:

  • The National Finance Policy has been amended to make all solar PV home systems exempt from VAT and import duties, in order to reduce the cost to consumers

  • A “Green Lane” has been set up by customs authorities to allow approved companies to get their products cleared  faster from ports

  • 13 companies have been vetted and approved by the Minister of Energy for import waivers and Green Lane status. These companies all adhere to International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards, ensuring that quality is maintained

  • A Renewable Energy Association of Sierra Leone was created with 17 initial members

  • Mechanisms to create access to finance for the sector are being explored with national and international actors. A pilot financial model is being pioneered by a local commercial bank, microfinance institution and private company, which addresses company capitalization, consumer financing and FOREX hedging

  • Sierra Leone has been included in the Africa Clean Energy (ACE) program being launched by DfID, which means new financing opportunities for the decentralized solar market will be made available in 2017

  • Getting all key government agencies and ministries aligned on policy and regulation, including the Ministry of Energy, the National Revenue Authority, the Ministry of Trade and Industry, the Ministry of Finance and the Standards Bureau

 

Minister of Energy, Henry Macauley said: “Today off-grid solar technology provides us with an opportunity to get modern energy to all those living far from the grid. Through the elimination of taxes and tariffs and creation of a ‘Green Lane’ corridor at customs, the Government has taken rapid action to speed up the importation of solar products, and to make them cheaper for consumers. But we must urgently increase investment into the sector to maximize the impact of these strong policy measures, and ensure the Energy Revolution reaches its targets. We are calling our partners in the international community to help us unlock catalytic finance to ensure we can reach 250,000 homes with modern energy by the end of 2017, and achieve power for all by 2025”.

Two Billion People Around The World Lack Reliable Access To Electricity

A report ‘Powering Productivity: Early Insights Into Mini Grid Operations In Rural Kenya’ released by Vulcan Impact Investing team, in partnership with steama.co has revealed that more than 2 billion people around the world lack reliable access to electricity. The least electrified region is sub-Saharan Africa, where some 620 million people – mostly in rural areas – lack power.

Many governments and utilities have expressed intentions to expand national grid capacity, but with high up-front costs and low consumption by individual users, publicly funded rural electrification has been extremely slow, the authors of the report explain in their summary.

The off-grid energy industry is tapping into the opportunity presented by a vast market of unconnected people, resulting in the development of innovative business models and technologies. Yet, the electricity usage behaviors of the people that these new businesses aim to serve is

not well understood. Understanding this market, and serving it well, requires real world-experience and operational data.

Beginning in 2014, Vulcan Inc. and steama.co developed and have been operating ten solar powered off-grid mini grids of 1.5 – 6 (kw) in distinctly different villages across Kenya. “Our goal is to demonstrate the potential of the mini grid sector to be commercially successful and to generate valuable experience and insights to share with other off-grid businesses and investors.” The authors explained.

This white paper is the first of several data-driven research pieces that will be produced by Vulcan and steama.co. It focuses on consumption and revenue growth and on building a knowledge base about rural consumers’ ability and willingness to pay.

The paper, Powering Productivity, investigates various factors that can make or break the value of a mini-grid including recruiting the appropriate customer base, generating revenue, balancing supply and demand and creating social impact.

Key findings of the report include:

  1. Breaking up with fossil fuels - It’s remarkable how many of our customers are willing to shift away from an energy source they’ve used their whole lives. Prior to the installation of our grids, 86% of our customers used unsafe and unhealthy kerosene, disposable batteries or diesel generators to meet their energy needs. Post-grid installation, only 4% of customers are still using any of these fossil fuels.
  2. Electricity is sparking economic development - Simply put, the arrival of power allows for entrepreneurship and opportunity, particularly for rural youth. The majority of new businesses in the villages we’ve electrified have been started by younger and tech savvy customers. We’ve learned that, as a result, more young people are staying in the villages because of this newly available job opportunity.
  3. Unlocking access to energy using mobile phones - Throughout rural Kenya, consumers are accustomed to pay-as-you-go mobile services via their cell phones. Since cash flow can be an issue, if the power goes out due to lack of payment, with a quick tap on their cell phones, our customers can make instantaneous micro-payments to turn the lights back on. One-time payments can be as low as $0.10 with some customers buying electricity as often as five times per day.
  4. Turning on more than just the lights - Appliances are critical to driving electricity demand and making mini grids profitable and sustainable. Our customers tell us that they would buy more electricity if they could afford more appliances, but they often struggle to afford these refrigerators, TVs, welding machines, etc. We’re working to develop a program which will enable our users to access appliances either through a leasing or a rent-to-own program.
  5. Going off the grid and into the 21st century - At the current rate of connecting new homes to the national electricity grid, it will take more than 60 years for every African to have access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy — an UN Sustainable Development goal. Privately operated renewable energy mini grids, on the other hand, can be installed and operating in a matter of weeks. Mini grid companies — much more nimble than national governments — are providing clean and reliable to consumers. They are also making connections to electricity more affordable.

 

5 Things You Should Know About the Future of Electricity in Rural Africa

When the sun goes down, much of rural Africa is left in the dark. More than 600 million rural Africans are without electricity and use dangerous, polluting and expensive energy sources to dimly light their homes.

For the last two years, I, along with Lauren Kickham, have led philanthropist Paul Allen’s Vulcan Impact Investing efforts to help plug in Africa. Partnering with steama.co, a remote monitoring company, we own and manage 10 solar powered mini grids that provide clean electricity to rural Kenyans.

The project has been impactful and enlightening: here are five things we’ve learned so far.

  1. Unlocking access to energy using mobile phones

Throughout rural Kenya, consumers are accustomed to pay-as-you-go mobile services via their cell phones. Since cash flow can be an issue, if the power goes out due to lack of payment, with a quick tap on their cell phones, our customers can make instantaneous micro-payments to turn the lights back on. One-time payments can be as low as $0.10 with some customers buying electricity as often as five times per day.

  1. Breaking up with fossil fuels

It’s remarkable how many of our customers are willing to shift away from an energy source they’ve used their whole lives. Prior to the installation of our grids, 86% of our customers used unsafe and unhealthy kerosene, disposable batteries or diesel generators to meet their energy needs. Post-grid installation, only 4% of customers are still using any of these fossil fuels.

  1. Going off the grid and into the 21st century

At the current rate of connecting new homes to the national electricity grid, it will take more than 60 years for every African to have access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy — an UN Sustainable Development goal.

Privately operated renewable energy mini grids, on the other hand, can be installed and operating in a matter of weeks. Mini grid companies — much more nimble than national governments — are providing clean and reliable to consumers. They are also making connections to electricity more affordable.

  1. Turning on more than just the lights

Appliances are critical to driving electricity demand and making mini grids profitable and sustainable. Our customers tell us that they would buy more electricity if they could afford more appliances, but they often struggle to afford these refrigerators, TVs, welding machines, etc. We’re working to develop a program which will enable our users to access appliances either through a leasing or a rent-to-own program.

  1. Electricity is sparking economic development

Simply put, the arrival of power allows for entrepreneurship and opportunity, particularly for rural youth. The majority of new businesses in the villages we’ve electrified have been started by younger and tech savvy customers. We’ve learned that, as a result, more young people are staying in the villages because of this newly available job opportunity.

There’s still more to learn about our mini grids like how electricity is changing the lives of our customers, if electricity consumption changes over time, and how profitable mini grids can be. One thing is clear, though, rural Africans want electricity and Vulcan Impact Investing will continue to share our lessons so that, together, we can power Africa.

SOURCE: https://medium.com/

 

Renewables Vital To Achieve Climate And Development Goals

Cities now have an unprecedented opportunity to transform and decarbonise their energy supply and use, according to a new report from the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). Renewable Energy in Cities, released this week on the sidelines of the Habitat III Conference in Quito, estimates energy use in 3,649 cities and explores their potential to scale-up renewable energy by 2030. It finds that while there is no one-size fits all solution, every city has massive potential to cost-effectively boost renewable energy use at the local level.

“Cities can play a transformative role in leading the world to a clean and sustainable energy future,” said Adnan Z. Amin, IRENA Director-General. “We have to rethink the entire urban energy landscape, which requires rigorous planning and holistic decision-making. Renewable energy, combined with energy efficiency, will power the future growth of cities. We must ensure this transition happens as soon as possible.”

Electricity use varies widely across cities depending on climate conditions, population density and development stage. Likewise, energy use for transport varies greatly depending on urbanisation models. Today, renewables supply only 20 per cent of this energy, but much more is possible.

Renewable Energy in Cities outlines three priority areas – both in technology and in policy – where cities can take action to scale up renewables use: renewable energy in buildings (for heating, cooling, cooking, and appliances); sustainable options for transport (electric mobility and biofuels); and creating integrated urban energy systems.

Accounting for 65 per cent of global energy use and 70 per cent of man-made carbon emissions, cities must play a key role in the transition to a low-carbon economy. By highlighting best practice from cities around the world, the report shows what is possible and what policies are needed to enable the change. It also provides concrete examples of how city actors can accelerate the switch to renewable energy at the local level by acting as planners, regulators, financiers and operators of urban infrastructure.

“By 2050, urban populations are expected to double, making urbanisation one of this century’s most transformative trends,” said Mr. Amin. “Now is the time to grow with renewables, leapfrog dirty technology, and create cities of the future that people are proud to call home.”

Renewable Energy in Cities was released in support of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals and the Habitat III Conference taking place in Quito, Ecuador. Meeting every 20 years, this year’s Habitat Conference is focused on sustainable urbanisation. Within this context and for the first time ever, the Conference is discussing the proliferation of renewable energy as a means to achieve a sustainable urban future and common prosperity.

The International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) is mandated to be the global hub for renewable energy cooperation and information exchange by 149 Members (148 States and the European Union). 27 additional countries are in the accession process and actively engaged. IRENA promotes the widespread adoption and sustainable use of all forms of renewable energy, in the pursuit of sustainable development, energy access, energy security and low-carbon economic growth and prosperity.

Exploit Renewable Energy To Achieve Sustainable Development Goals

The year 2015 went into the books of history where more than 150 world leaders representing 150 nations gathered at the United Nations General Assembly in New York to discus and adopt the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, including the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

Sustainable development is an approach to development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The SDG are aimed at guiding the pathway to sustainable future for which universal adoption of renewable energy technologies can exceedingly contribute to their success especially in developing countries.  

For instance, though SDG 7 is the only goal that openly points out the energy sector with emphasis on renewable energy and urges policy makers and governments to ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all by 2030. Energy from sun, wind, water, geothermal and others is of significant importance to achieving other SDGs as well especially in developing countries. 

Particularly, this is the case for; (SDG 1) End poverty in all its forms everywhere, (SDG 3) Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages, (SDG 5) Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls,  (SDG 8) Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, (SDG 9) promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation, (SDG 10) reduction of inequalities, and (SDG13) take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts.

It should be noted that, access to clean, affordable and reliable energy is a cross cutting issue among these goals and can only be the case if we are all going to adopt and use renewable energy technologies and minimize the use of fossil fuels to the least possible means. In fact, renewable energy technologies have the potential to spur sustainable development if implementation follows the principles of revenue sharing, diversity, equality and decentralization.

According to the Alternative Energy Sources Assessment Report (2004) and the National Biomass Assessment Study, Uganda has enormous potential for clean energy, amounting to over 5,300MW and if well exploited will be instrumental for achieving sustainable development including Uganda's vision 2040 and improve the living standards of people.

On the other hand, sustainable development does not only refer to environmental management issues but  must also be based on an economy that conserves its ecosystem jealously  while mindfully focusing on wealth creation and act as an instrument for wealth redistribution and creation of social well-being. Therefore, Environment, economy and society are the three spheres of sustainable development.

This article was written By Samuel Okulony

Programs and research coordinator

Africa Institute for Energy Governance

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 

I Think Uganda Is Confused About Renewable Energy

If you argue that the government is not skeptic, cynic and hesitant about investing in renewable energy, look at the words of one Tchouate Pepin of the United Nations Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL), a project aiming at promoting clean energy: “It is possible to achieve renewable energy for lighting but not for transport and cooking.”

“In life, it is better to dream than thinking of nothing,” Pepin says. “Renewable energy for lighting is feasible because Uganda is endowed with sufficient resources to enable us do this using hydro- power. But on energy for trans- port and cooking, we can’t.”

Clearly, this is a disheartening statement. But the good news is it is just another opinion. I believe key experts in Uganda’s energy field have such negative opinions too, yet access to just any form of electricity, leave alone renewable energy, has remained a dream to many Ugandans.

Majority households in urban areas leave alone the villages, mainly cook using charcoal and this has posed a huge burden on the country to provide biomass made out of wood. In the rural areas, the situation is much worse. The condemned charcoal is their gold, and the scarce wood fuel a luxury.

The threats of climate change flares high; the government is under pressure from United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change (UNFCCC), with a handful of aid organisations working closely to offer help they can to mitigate and adapt to global warming.

But government minds seem corrupted by cynicism and their actions tell a different story—that’s if we honestly understand what is meant by renewable/clean energy.

Clean energy includes biofuels, biomass and waste, geothermal, solar, wind and small hydro (up to 50MW) – but not large hydro.

The government herself has maintained its traditional, conservatist course of investments in gigantic hydro power projects. First, not until not so long ago, in 1999 when the Electricity Act was passed,was the monopoly of a statutory corporation, the Uganda Electricity Board downsized.

Today wehave spent over 1 trillion in the financial year 2014/15 in the “first track” of the construction of the 600mw Karuma and 188mw Isimba hydro power plants. Bujagali power dam was also built at the cost of an arm and a leg, all in the mighty name of redeeming the country from darkness.

But beyond these splendors and good intentions, it must be put blatantly that the government is biased on clean energy investment.

Another wicked irony, the most dystopian capitalistic illusion masquerading as oil and gas sector is under gigantic investment…and plans to build geo-thermal and nuclear sources, using uraniumhave remained in the papers too long.

Clearly, steeping up renewable energy sector would lift the country out of years of darkness than these much anticipated much bureaucratic, unclean energy sources.

Can’t we draw lessons from our neighbour Kenya who has achieved relatively high levels of penetration with installed capacity to the grid 5.45mw of clean energy tapped from wind alone? Wind energy is a clean energy source and environmental friendly. Wind turbines don’t produce atmospheric emissions that cause greenhouse gasses responsible for global warming effect, unlike burning of wood fuel that has been customised by most rural households.

The global call to end carbon is loud and clear: cut carbon dioxide emissions and aim towards investing in renewable energy—at all costs—and indeed there are available documents to show the government would be willing to cooperate better if some misgivings are cleared off its throat.

With charcoal demands currently standing at 44 million tonnes per year, yet the forests at the moment can only meet 26 million tonnes of the demand, according to the 2015 Energy Report for Uganda, which was released at the closure of 2015 renewable energy options are no longer optional but a clear way to achieve a safer, carbon free future in order to achieve 1.5 degree global temperature goal.

 

Authored by Boaz Opio

 

Uganda Electricity Transmission Gets Germany Boost

The Ministry of Finance, Planning and Economic Development, on behalf of government of Uganda, signed a bilateral financial cooperation agreement with the Federal Republic of Germany to facilitate electricity transformation in the East African country.

The cooperation agreement which was signed on Tuesday between State Minister for Finance David Bahati and the Germany Ambassador Peter Glomeyers covers two projects in the Energy sector – the Mbale- Bulambuli Transmission Line and Mbarara- Masala Transmission Line.

The agreement signed will see EURO75m (about $84m) injected into the two projects with EURO 40m spent on the Mbale line while EURO 35m will be spent on Mbarara line. State Minister for Finance David Bahati explained that the effort is in line with government priorities and objectives as laid out in the National Development Plan II (NDP II)

 “One of the objectives under the Energy sector is to expand the electricity transmission lines to evacuate power from generation plants; this is what the two projects are set to achieve.” the minister said.

The Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development and UETCL, according to Bahati, will be the implementers of the projects including conducting compensation of people affected by the projects.

Investec Asset Management Invests In Mobisol

Investec Asset Management, through its African private equity capability, has acquired a significant shareholding in Mobisol, a leading and rapidly-growing provider of off-grid solar home systems (SHS) inAfrica.

The deal will see Investec Asset Management partner with Mobisol, existing shareholders and DEG to accelerate the company’s growth in its existing markets and to support its expansion into new markets in

Africa. Already a well-established player in Tanzania and Rwanda, Mobisol is now entering the Kenyan market. DEG - Deutsche Investitions- und Entwicklungsgesellschaft mbh, who has been a shareholder since 2015 and who has been accompanying Mobisol GmbH through different growth phases, further increased their shareholding in the company as part of the transaction.

The Berlin-headquartered company offers low-income African households high-quality solar home systems that are a clean, safe and affordable alternative to fossil fuels. Mobisol systems are designed specifically for the African market and are powerful enough to meet the energy needs of a typical off-grid African household. They are able to power lighting, radios and stereos, mobile phone charging, TVs, and other appliances such as irons, fridges and ventilators.

A three-year payment plan makes the systems affordable, with entry-level systems costing approximately the same on a daily basis as the typical customer spends on kerosene, candles, batteries and mobile phone charging prior to purchasing a Mobisol SHS.

A significant proportion of customers are also able to generate income from their SHS, for example by providing a mobile phone charging service or by running productive electrical equipment in businesses, such as hair clippers in barber shops. The use of innovative mobile technology such as mobile money, allows customer payments and remote system monitoring to be carried out in a cost and time-efficient manner.

“Our partnership with Investec Asset Management marks an important milestone in the growth history of Mobisol. The investment and partnership with Investec will allow Mobisol to concentrate on scaling and better serving our customers while constantly innovating and reinforcing our unique competitive edge.” Said Thomas Gottschalk, Founder and CEO of Mobisol.

Commenting on the deal, Mark Jennings, Investment Principal in Private Equity at Investec Asset Management, said: “We are delighted to partner with Mobisol’s founder-management. Mobisol has established itself as a leading provider of off-grid solar home systems in Africa and we are looking forward to supporting the dynamic team at Mobisol in driving the next phase of the company’s growth and development.”

Since inception Mobisol has installed over 60,000 solar home systems in Tanzania and Rwanda, enabling some 300,000 people to access clean, affordable and reliable solar energy. Mobisol is a major driver of rural development and job creation in East Africa, stimulating economic and social development, particularly for women, while simultaneously contributing to global environmental protection.

With over 600 million people in Africa not connected to the grid, Mobisol’s high-quality off-grid solar systems for households and small businesses are substituting the unavailable or poor grid while offering an attractive and highly scalable solution to addressing the energy needs of Africa.

Investec Asset Management established an African private equity capability in 2008. The Private Equity strategy focuses on growth capital and buyout investments in established mid-market and larger companies in Africa, with the objective of supporting the creation of local or regional champions in their respective industries.

 

Uganda Ties Up Japanese For Geothermal Power Generation

Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development (MEMD) and Toshiba Corporation on August 27, 2016concluded a memorandum of understanding (MOU) that will see the two partners collaborate in geothermal power generation projects, including personnel development.The parties signed the MOU during the Tokyo International Conference on African Development 2016 that was being held in Nairobi, Kenya.

Under the terms of the MOU, Toshiba will collaborate in the development and supply of major equipment for a geothermal power plant, create operation and management guidelines, and cooperate in personnel development. Participation from the development stage positions Toshiba to contribute to the early construction of the plant, and to supply geothermal power generation equipment in the future.

Uganda lies to the west of the Great Rift Valley and has rich geothermal potential, equivalent to 500 megawatts. Currently, about 60% of power generation capacity is from hydroelectric power, and the country has long promoted construction of hydro power plants. Adding geothermal to the mix will contribute to supply stability and the ability to meet rising demand stimulated by high economic growth-currently increasing at about 10% per a year.

“The development of Uganda's geothermal energy resources is in line with our energy policy objectives of increasing power generation capacity and diversifying our energy mix in order to achieve least cost, affordable and stable energy supply”, said Dr. Fred Kabagambe-Kaliisa, Permanent Secretary at the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development. “We are very confident that the Government of Uganda and Toshiba will create a strong Public-Private-Partnership to develop the Geothermal Energy resources.”

Toyoaki Fujita, Business Development Executive of Toshiba's Energy Systems & Solutions Company said, “We hope to build a strong partnership with Uganda and to contribute to the development of sustainable power supply there. Toshiba’s Energy Systems & Solutions Company is a world leader in geothermal power generation, and I believe that our established expertise can contribute to the geothermal power supply in Uganda.”

Toshiba has delivered 53 geothermal turbines, with a total capacity of 3,400 megawatts, to plants in Japan, the USA, the Philippines, Iceland and other countries around the world. This represents approximately 23%*, of the world's installed geothermal capacity, making Toshiba the world's top supplier.
In the African market, Toshiba most recently delivered four geothermal turbines to Kenya that started commercial operation in 2015.

The company has also concluded MOUs with geothermal power development companies in Ethiopia in 2014, Tanzania in 2015 and Djibouti in August this year, all covering comprehensive collaboration in the geothermal power generation business. Toshiba Group will continue to contribute to stable electricity supply and the realization of a low-carbon economy.

Attorney General Agrees With Sinohydro Over New Karuma, Isimba Suit

The Attorney General has agreed with Sinohydro Corporation’s position, joining the contractor’s dismissal as malicious and totally misconstrued, the allegations in a court case filed against it and others over the procurement process. 

The case stems from a suit filed by one Henry Kyarimpa, who asked the High court to order for an independent engineering, financial and value-for-money audit to determine the quality of works and viability of the projects and also to cancel contracts of both the Karuma and the 183MW Isimba hydro power contractors. 

However, the East African Court of Justice in Arusha had ruled thus in the same case; “With respect to the order to cancel the MoU between Government of Uganda and Sinohydro, we are persuaded that such an order would be academic and futile. As a court of law, we cannot act in vain and we, accordingly decline to order the respondent to cancel the MoU between the GoU and Sinohydro” 

The East African court had further stated that it was impractical to reverse the construction of the Karuma dam by Sinohydro adding that the remedy sought by the appellant was inappropriate in the circumstances. 

In their defence to the latest appeal, Sinohydro says the matters Kyarimpa raises in his new petition have already been dealt with by the East African Court of Justice hence they cannot be pursued further by the same parties. 

The Attorney General’s defence states that Sinohydro together with the government of Uganda, entered into an engineering procurement and construction contract, which provides, among other things, a consultant whose duties include verifications and ensuring proper works site.

The Attorney General further affirms that if there are any construction issues at Karuma or Isimba, such EPC has in-built provisions for addressing and rectifying such issues, and it cannot be open to the second defendant to arrogate to himself the duty of a consultant to the project. 

Government says it has put in place adequate supervision capacity. The AG maintains that the regulations are undertaken by Uganda Electricity Generation Company, which is advised by reputable project management consultants such as SMEC International Limited at Isimba and AF Consulting Switzerland Limited at Karuma. 

Furthermore, the Attorney General said contrary to allegations of lack of proper supervision of the project, there is adequate supervision on ground at both Isimba and Karuma hydro power projects to check the quality of work which is currently at 31% and 30% construction progress respectively. 

“There are no material and fundamental defects on the projects. The defects so far experienced on site are minor and are those which ordinarily occur in the construction and engineering industry and do not affect the functionality and durability of both projects” AG’s defence reads in part. 

The AG also denies Kyarimpa's allegations that there is infighting between the Ministry of energy and Uganda Electricity and Generation Company. 

"On the contrary, there is a memorandum of understanding that was entered into by the two institutions spelling out the responsibilities of each institution," the government says, adding: "The first defendant [Attorney General] avers that government of Uganda has not received any credible reports or information of alleged corruption, misuse and wastage of public resources as alleged."

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