Importance Of Making Early Holiday Preparations

By Cynthia Tumwine

Yes, December is here and the rush has begun. Prices are shooting for everything and yet the festive season still has to be celebrated. The last thing you need is being unable to have a fun time with friends and loved ones because you did not plan ahead.

Here are some of the reasons as to why you need to plan that amazing road trip, getaway or destination holiday in time.

Book the hotel or flight before the prices shoot due to the festive season.
It is always key to book your hotel or flight early enough if you have travel plans to avoid having to pay extremely high rates on hotels and flights. As the days get closer to Christmas and Newyear, everybody starts booking which means demand is high and obviously the prices will shoot up from the original price.

Higher chance of availability in the hotels when you book or reserve early.
As mentioned above, everyone suddenly remembers to book their getaway last minute. This therefore means there is a rush and in this period rooms start to get filled up and flights get overbooked. If you want to stand a chance and avoid disappointment then booking early is important.

Easier to save up for the holidays, than to spend large sums at once.
Everyone can agree that December is usually the most expensive month of the year. It gets so bad that it always has people crying of being broke in January. Sometimes, this could be because they are spending huge sums of money all in one go.

Imagine how much easier it would be on your pockets if you saved up early in the year specifically for all your travel expenses in the festive season. Planning can include even paying ahead, such as for hotel rooms or flights so as to guarantee availability and avoid the high charges incurred as prices rise in this peak season.

The penalty for cancelling hotel bookings can be very high and yet sometimes plans change.
Some hotels have a free cancellation policy. However, for others there is a small fine one incurs when they cancel their booking, and the closer to your check in date you cancel, the higher the fine. So, in the event that your plans change, it is better to cancel early instead of waiting till the last minute.

Getting family and friends together can be tricky.
Going on holiday with loved ones requires meticulous planning. This is because people may have different schedules, break off from work at different times and have different budgets. Therefore, it’s always best to have these discussions prior so as to ensure a successful trip.

All that being said don’t forget to book as soon as possible onJumia Travel for the best rates on Hotels and Flights.

Cynthia Tumwine

PR Manager Jumia Food and Travel


Victoria University Exhibits World Class Research In Public Health

By Professor Stephen Lawoko

Having spent 28 years of my life in Sweden, returning to Uganda July 2017, to serve my country was an honor,though with mixed feelings of excitement and uncertainty. Exciting because I felt my experience in research and education in the health sciences domain would be of great value to university students, faculty and community at large.

Uncertain because I had never worked professionally on long-term basis in Uganda, having left the country after completing senior six. I was now to join as Dean of Health Sciences at a young but dynamic University, Victoria University.

For the past 16 years, I had served in different capacities at the Karolinska Institute in Sweden, a top notch world class Medical and Health Science University founded in 1810 and therefore more than 200 years old! Now an Associate Professor, my agenda was clear, but what were my expectations of this 7 year old Victoria University?

I had read and heard of over-filled Universities in Uganda with tutor-student ratios way below optimal. On one occasion while in Sweden, I had actually been invited as a guest lecturer at one such University and experienced it. Some proponents had suggested that this was a reflection of popularity while others argued it was mirroring shortage of higher education facilities in the country, amidst high demand.

Whatever the case, Victoria University stood out! What I found on ground upon taking on my new role was a modern culturally diverse cosmopolitan University in central Kampala, with all the environmental recipes for an ideal learning environment! Student-tutor ratios were optimal with lots of spacious classrooms, a fully-fledged library and skills laboratory!

Energetic scholars had just returned from field placements, where they had interfaced with and provided health services to disadvantaged communities during their recess term! Among them where Maria Ssematiko, Winnie Apolot and Irene Samari.

At the university, they mingled freely with faculty and where not shy to share of their experiences with their new Dean. It appeared that student-faculty communication was good. Just like the students, faculty members where from all corners of globe. In general, these conditions mirrored what I had left behind at the Karolinska Institute in Sweden, 200 years older than Victoria University!

Five months have passed since I took on the new position as Dean of Faculty of Health Sciences at the Victoria University. My observations, reviews of past andcurrent strategic plans, interactions with faculty and students, among others, indicate that Victoria University is growing at an exponential pace to become a world class University!

Last week I presided over the defense of three bachelors theses in Public Health Sciences, which is one of four programs offered at the Faculty of Health Sciences. As Dean of the faculty, I had carefully matched each thesis with a set of three appropriate independent expert examiners in line with the University policies and recommendations. The following is a summary of the three important theses Authored by Ms. Maria Ssematiko, Ms. Winnie Apolot and Ms. Irene Samari respectively.

Thesis I

Anaemia, a condition characterized by low blood haemoglobin concentration, is currently a global public health problem that has adverse health consequences. It is a result of iron deficiency in the body, mainly due to poor nutritional practices and is therefore a preventable.

Yet, a striking 40% of the world’s children under 5 years old are affected by the disease, according to the World Health Organization (WHO) statistics. Using data from over 1000 women extracted from the Uganda Demographic and Health Surveys, Ms. Maria Ssematiko’s thesis assessed the influence of women’s demographic and empowerment features on anaemia status among their children (0-5) years old.

Ms. Ssematiko’s study found the prevalence of anaemia among Ugandan children under 5 years to be as high as 65%, which is 25% more than the global average! Further investigation revealed that maternal illiteracy, teen-age motherhood and residing in rural settings increased the likelihood of having a child with anaemia among Ugandan Women.

In addition, the study identified significant religious and ethnic variations in the prevalence of Anaemia. According, Ms. Ssematiko recommended that interventions to address infant Anaemia should target and be tailored to suit mothers with specific socio-demographic characteristics (identified in her study), if Anemia is to be effectively controlled at National level in Uganda.

Thesis II

Immunization is proven to be the most effective way of preventing mortality of children below five years. Yet, infant mortality remains relatively high in Uganda at 43 deaths per 1000 live births. An understanding of both the demand (i.e. caretaker) and supply (i.e. caregiver) factors can inform effective interventions to reduce immunization related mortality.

The thesis of Ms. Winnie Apolot assessed and identified parental and health facility factors that negatively influence completion of immunization services. Using data generated from 185 mothers in Budumbili west as a case study, Ms. Apolot found poor knowledge of immunization schedules among parents to reduce the likelihood of immunization completion.

Surprisingly, unlike previous studies, Ms, Winnie Apolot’s study did not find any association between general education levels and completion of Immunization. Ms. Apolot concluded that these finding have the implication that generic interventions alone (e.g. universal primary/secondary education) my not adequately address the gap in immunization practices among mothers. The study emphasized the need to complement general education with comprehensive orientation of mothers about the immunization process at the community level,by healthcare providers.

Thesis III

The World Health Organization estimates that 10% of the African population lives with some form of disability. There is broad consensus among researchers that disability influences the mental wellbeing of People living With Disabilities (PWDs).

However, not all PWDs encounter mental health problem, and the research on factors that may distinguish between PWDs who develop mental distress and those who do not is lacking. Ms. Irene Samari’s thesis set out to fill this research gap.

Using data generated from 130 PWDs from CoRSU (Comprehensive Rehabilitation Services Uganda), a facility offering services to people with disability in central Uganda, the study found the prevalence of psychological distress (which is a generic indicator of mental illness) among PWDs to be ashigh as 70%.

The characteristics among PWDs that increased the likelihood of distress included young age, being single, socio-economic disadvantage (reflected in low education and low income), and having another health condition besides the disability (i.e. Comorbidity). Ms. Samari concluded that interventions to reduce distress among PWDs should be comprehensive, targeting the identified risk groups as well as detecting and dealing with comorbid conditions among PWDs.    

The global, regional and community relevanceof these bachelors’ theses cannot be overemphasized. The millennium development goals (MDGs) 3,4 and 5highlighted several aspects related to these works including reduction of high child mortality rates, and closing the gap in health and healthcare utilizationamong disadvantaged populations.

Though tremendous progress was made in the achievement of the MDGs by 2015, significant gaps remained and the research of Maria, Winnie and Irene remain relevant in addressing these gaps. They incorporate an understanding that research on risk factors for ill health, uptake and supply of health services can provide important insight for preventive and curative interventions targeted at specific groups at risk in the communities.

They provide evidence ofbarriers to the effective uptake and supply of health services, emanating from the healthcare supply side as well as the demand side. They underline the importance of a comprehensive approach in addressing these health risk and gaps in delivery, and finally, they exhibit the high level of training and research of relevance for the global community offered at the Victoria University.

Congratulation Maria, Winnie and Irene for your important contribution to global health research! The challenge remains in the translation of your findings from paper to interventions that will transform the lives of the populations you have studied. It is my hope that your research journey has not ended here. You started it; you either finish it or encourage those following you to pick up from where you stopped! Aluta Continua, Victoria University on your journey towards excellence in education, research and community service!

Professor Stephen Lawoko, Dean Faculty of Health Sciences, Victoria University

What You Need To Know About Education And Social Transformation

By Kasirye Fred

A lot has been said and documented about education and its potential in transforming society. Indeed this has also been witnessed in many parts of the world and thus the investment people continue to make in education of masses around the globe with the hope of transforming society.

Education in itself is not merely limited to classroom experiences but, aholistic and experiential learning aimedat social transformation. The reason we partake of the challenge is to define ourselves in the wider society where we live as influential contributors to growth and social structuring for better livelihood.

It is therefore rather absurd when you ask a third world student why they enrolled on a course and their answer is “because it’s marketable”. This is not only a misconception of the need to attain education but greatly puts across the question as to whether we all know why we at one point made the decision/ or someone made the decision for us to enroll in school.

The many challenges in the 3rd world should directly respond to the creation of more opportunity. Our reason to go to school should be to end these challenges of poverty, unemployment, famine, drought, corruption and the list goes on depending on where one comes from.

Right form history, innovations, discoveries and inventions the world over largely owe their existence to education and so shall the future without doubt. However, as a community in the third world we continue to graduate engineers that cannot make innovations for social transformation, social workers that fear to engage with the community challenges in the rural areas, public administrators that breed corruption ad divert public funds and the like.

In this case we clearly notice that education indeed can cause social breakdown in some instances such as these. Its then that all of us serving in the education sector need to revisit our purpose, and more so how we conduct day to day business in and outside the classroom. Until we know we are part of the problem as educationists/ academia, and also that we are part of the solution it will not be easy to find a lasting remedy to the ills education breeds for society.

Focusing on the game changers

At the end of your primary leaving examination, your parents congratulate you upon the completion of a landmark level in your education career, aggregate four is awaited and behold if you get it right, the four is in hand a great celebration is in order. But the cycle continues as you go even higher, senior four, senior six and then University where you graduate with a bachelor’s degree.

But why is it that after this investment in the graduate, he/ she stays “unoccupied” and consider themselves jobless instead of moving out to create solutions to the challenges of the world and his/her environs. Largely people will say it’s the lack of jobs and indeed it is a good reason but it is not a satisfactory reason in a community where social problems continue to multiply and require educated brains to solve them.

Just like lifestyle responds to trends, education delivery needs to respond to trends. Today unlike in the past we are building on already existing knowledge and not creating totally knew knowledge from scratch. 20th century teaching methods are unlikely going to impact on the 21st century learner however good the facilitator / lecturer might be or even the information prepared for the class. The method of delivery will determine if learning actually takes place and therefore shall create the future expected of every learner. I shall pronounce a three level effort in the ideal direction.

  1. University funding.

The cream of the country’ educated cannot keep around to nature the young generations for long due to the failure of the local universities to deploy them. Low pay, poor research culture, and low motivation will drive the researchers to greener pastures. A country will need data as a basis to plan but due to the inability to undertake credible researches since the highly educated are off to greener pastures, a gap stays unserved.

While there is a lot of government and NGO funding for primary and secondary schools, for the purposes of engineering social transformation its high time the funding be put to universities to engage in more research and provide a direction. With the relevant researches done, governments will have a partner in education institutions to inform strategy and thus reduce speculative spending thereby supporting social transformation.

  1. Ensuring Learning

It is true that there is huge unemployment in the third world, but it is also true that the actively employed do more than one job in some cases in the same sector. In the education sector it is even worse. A primary school teacher will teach in more than five schools in order to break even. Same for the secondary school teacher they will settle for a multitude of classes, just to live at the bare minimum in their society.

This habit creeped to the universities, and now indeed scholars are in the market place. It is ethically wrong to present as a teacher and fail at your primary role of ensuring learning. In this part of the would education has further been abused to make it a traumatizing experience where learners are humiliated for poor performance, made to repeat classes and are thus embarrassed, and creating an environment of authoritative teacher / submissive student relationship.

This kind of environment builds a cram and answer the exam atmosphere. It doesn’t build a learning culture. The competition created is not healthy and in many cases has caused unnecessary examination malpractices. Why would a school cheat in an examination?

Silently I hear the answer to grow its numbers and confidence in the parents, but it’s a simple principle, trash in trash out, these seemingly small cases will bread the corrupt government officials in tomorrow’s world. Right from the ministry of education down to the education institutions, a culture of learning should be propagated through putting in place structures to ensure learning and not academic competition.

  1. Student / learner support

Basic education provides for laid down teacher/ student ratios for ideal classes, a library for referencing and a staff room for face to face between teachers/ lecturers and the learners. Unfortunately this support to learners is fast taking the exit route. Schools today and even universities will provide space for lecture room but none for staff, and neither for the library.

The explanation will be that the teachers/ lecturers are part time and the library can be obtained virtually. This without doubt is the epitome of neglect of duty. Students / learners would at all-time wish to consult with their trainers, practice what they are learning if they will confidently apply it when off campus. It is an open education secret that learning for transformation can only take place when the student and the teacher appreciate that each has a role to play in this calling.

The student to present themselves for the learning and the lecturer to offer the platform for this learning to take place. Any institution that will not provide for student support mechanisms will take on the comfort of an academic shop and not an education institution.


Education to date has the capacity to transform the communities in which we stay for the better, however as partners in providing education, we must rethink delivery, funding priorities and the learning environment if we are to realize the social transformation we all desire.

Kasirye Fred, is a Lecturer at Victoria University Kampala

Regular Exercises Are Part Of A Health Living – Fitness Experts

Exercising your body regularly must be part of your health lifestyle as the year comes to an end and prepare to start another, fitness experts at The City Gym in Kampala have with emphasis advised.

“Regular exercise is a big part of a healthy lifestyle and you should commit to it for a longer life,” James Oketch, the manager and lead trainer at the City Gym said. He added: “Working out with consistency is important for achieving fitness results,”

He explains that creating a workout plan will help you to achieve greater consistency. “Commitment to a regular workout routine will increase your fitness level, improve your health and generate a greater sense of mental wellbeing,” he pointed out.

The City Gym offers gym services like Kick Boxing & Mixed Martial Arts, Dance Fitness, Zumba Classes, Body Pump, Yoga, Sauna and a fruit bar using state of the art equipment from Italy. It is located on Kampala Boulevard building on Kampala road.

Oketch further explains that a written workout plan not only provides a layout for the day ‘but it also sets up the big picture for weeks or months to come,” “In other words, an established plan dictates the work that must be done in order to reach the goal,”

“If you're serious about losing weight and getting in better shape, there's no better time to start than right now. The longer you put it off, the more excuses you'll come up with and the longer it will take you to see results” the trainer says.

If you have a hectic schedule and full-time job that doesn’t leave you with a lot of time for yourself, you can always talk to your gym instructor so that a suitable schedule can be drawn to fit your lifestyle.

Sudhir Ruparelia School Fees Grant Now Open

Victoria University Kampala has announced that they are now receiving applications for Dr Sudhir Ruparelia Scholarship Grant which were recently introduced in August this year by the university to benefit needy by academically powerful students.

Eligible for this scholarship are high school leavers who are looking at advancing their education at a university level. This particular call for application is targeting students for the January/February intake which is ongoing.

Victoria University is an Institution of higher learning licensed by National Council for Higher Education. The University located at Jinja Road in Kampala has four active faculties - Business and Management, Humanities & Social Sciences, Science and Technology and Health Sciences.

Victoria University offers degree, diploma and certificate courses. They also offer foundation programs like Understanding the world today, Study Skills For Academic Life, IT Skills for Academic Study, Foundation Mathematics and Effective Writing & Communication skills and other short courses.

To qualify for the scholarship which covers upto 30 percent of tuition fees, candidates must meet certain selection criteria.

The candidate must be between the ages of 18 and 35 years, a Ugandan, posses good matric results, portray positive attitude, provide references, willing to give back to the community and able to maintain a GPA of minimum 3.5 throughout the program.

The application process includes filling and submitting an online or offline application and filling the Scholarship form to show interest and confirm that you fulfill the criteria. Thereafter, after reviewing your application, the scholarship committee will offer the scholarship to successful candidates.

Female Guild President Takes Over At Victoria University

For the first time in its history, Victoria University Kampala will have a female guild president. Maria Peggy Nabunya, the incoming guild president was on Saturday sworn in alongside her guild government at a colorful dinner at Speke Resort Munyonyo.

Ms Nabunya, the fourth guild president at Victoria University, takes over from Peter Isiko. She is a second year student undertaking a bachelor's of science in public health at the Ruparelia Group owned University.

Rajiv Ruparelia, the promoter of the Jinja road based University congratulated Ms Nabunya upon completing a successful campaign. Rajiv hailed the ‘spirit of competitiveness’ showed by all candidates who participated in the guild campaigns competing for different posts.

Maria Peggy Nabunya swearing in as guild president of Victoria University

He encouraged the news University student leaders, and especially to those who lost in the elections, to take the challenge presented to them as a learning process and never to give up. “When you fall, stand up, keep running. Don’t ever give up,”

Ms Nabunya, who has been the vice guild president, in an interview, explained that she was compelled to go for the top student leadership job because she had ‘so many ideas that I felt the need to continue with leadership in order to see those ideas come to reality’.

“I intend to work with the entire university to see that students continue to reap the fruits of the tuition they pay in terms of career growth, engaging students in activities that encourage us to be job creators as opposed to being job seekers. I also intend to have VU engage in more inter-university activities,” she added.

Alumni Association To Make Victoria University Stronger

The promoter of Victoria University Kampala, Rajiv Ruparelia, also a director in the Ruparelia Group which owns the Jinja road based learning institution, noted that the new and fresh alumni association will make the young private University much stronger.

Victoria University Saturday evening at Speke Resort Munyonyo launched the association in an attempt to build a network that connects old students with current students and University administration. The colorful event attracted former and current students and well wishers.

Rajiv Ruparelia who was the guest of honor at the launch of the association called on members to do ‘more networking’ and to ‘always come back to the university’. “Consider Victoria University as your second home, use it to develop yourselves and careers,” Rajiv said in his motivational remarks.

“It is important for us to launch this alumni association because it will help us to get feedback how our education has helped you to enjoy what you are doing today,” Rajiv said, adding: “It will also help us to get feedback on how we can improve on how relationship.”

He encouraged old students to inspire those still at the university by sharing their transitional journey from Victoria University into the outside world.

The University Chancellor Dr. Martin Aliker thanked the promoter for alumni association initiative. “I want to thank you for this initiative, for this very thought of creating this association which forever bring ex-students together and keep the university alive,”

“Victoria University must distinguish themselves from other average universities in Uganda by way of excellence. And only students can set the bar, the University can teach what it is supposed to teach but the students can make the university or break it.” the chancellor noted.

Being Guild President Of Victoria University Has Been Sweet But Challenging - Peter Isiko

The history of Victoria University Kampala will barely be written without the name Peter Isiko, the University’s third guild president. The computer science student on started handed over the guild presidency to another person who name will forever re-echo in the history of the University – Maria Peggey Nabunya, the first female guild president.

In this exclusive interview Peter Isiko dwells deeper into his one year rule as the top ranking student leader of the Ruparelia Group owned University located on Jinja road in Kampala, the capital of Uganda, East Africa. Read on.

How has been your reign as guild president of Victoria University? How can you describe it?

It has been bittersweet because there have been challenges as well as accomplishments. I have had several things that I wanted and managed to do and then others that I didn’t do. But overall I will give my reign as guild president of Victoria University a 60-40 score. The 60 percent is for the achievements and the 40 percent for the challenges I faced.

Talking of challenges, what are some of these challenges?

The biggest challenge has been the response from students. When you are at Victoria University it is not the same as any other local university. The main component of the student body is not native, they are not all Ugandan.

They come from so many different cultures so their interests vary. It is hard to get them on a common ground. Obviously things like sports and clubs they try to contribute but other activities it was not so easy to get a common ground.

The other challenge was the communication gap between administration and students because of the culture issue. If you have a student from South Africa, Zimbabwe or Nigeria, the way they communicate is different from a Ugandan student, typically.

Obviously the administration can communicate something that you as a Ugandan can understand but the Nigerian may perceive it in a different way so you have to bridge the gap. Those are some of the challenges I can point out for now.

And what are some the things you have done for the University as guild president? What are your achievements?

We managed to set up a vibrate sports club where games like football, basketball and swimming are now very strong and vibrate at the university. Before there were no games the University was participating in.

We also managed to build student clubs at the university; the Rotaract Club of Victoria University was chartered. It is now a growing club with a strong a membership of 30 students.

The business club is also up and running, they are having their launch next semester, we couldn’t do it this semester but they recently had a business dinner.

I also managed to build faculty activities. For example the health science faculty, they just had their own health week. The faculty of technology had their technology boot camp under the guild council were the security mobile app was built.

Under my reign I wanted to do two things; one, to show the intellectual prowess of our student and also engage them to the outside world. These I achieved.

How has being a guild president at Victoria University impacted you at a personal level?

I have met so my people in my field, I am a computer science students, who wouldn’t otherwise listen to you twice before but now they pay close attention they say since he is a guild president let us hear what he has to say.

So at a personal level I have made connections with people who are going to help me out professionally the moment I finish university, this being my last semester.

And how has it impacted you academically?

I maintained my good grades throughout like it were but being guild president imparts more pressure on you. Instead of reading for two hours, you might find that you need to find a third extra hour to read maybe because half the time you were not in class or something like that. It gets hectic.

Would you recommend someone to join Victoria University?

Yes definitely, Victoria University is growing. It is a University that looks at high standards, a university that looks out for the best for their students so when someone joins the university they can’t leave the same way they came. They will meet very many high profile people which help their careers.

At the same time, the learning system at Victoria University is not a typical school system, its quite different. It looks out for things that will train you for the future. It is an interesting and different place to study from.

Now that you have tasted leadership as guild president, would you consider joining mainstream politics and political leaders at a national level?

After being guild president, I understand what is required of a leader but usually my principle has been that always go for leadership when there is a change you can bring to the people.

It is not about people loving you or people supporting you but sometimes it is about what change you can bring about in society or community. Right now I don’t see what I can do because my vision right now is to move in the realm of technology development and innovations.

Maybe we can wait and see what the future holds but at the moment no, I don’t see myself going into that kind of leadership.

Amazing Use Of ICT In Aviation Industry

By Dr Terry Kahuma

As a young kid, whenever a person asked me what I wanted to be when I grew up, I would tell them “a pilot”. Till now, I marvel at how a huge vessel like an airplane is able to rise up, with so much weight, and soar the sky.

Fortunately, in my working life, I’ve been able to fly all over the world, to all continents, logging so many hours in my object of fascination. Some flights have been so long that, including long transit times, up to two or three days have passed and the first question I ask when I land is “which day of the week is it”?

A workmate of mine was so tired when he flew to the United States that he boarded a different connecting local flight and had to be assisted to board a totally unscheduled flight to his proper destination.

On one such flight, before terrorism became such a menace, as I waited for the flight to take off, I sauntered into the cockpit and asked the pilot how the plane flies all the way from Entebbe to say Amsterdam deep in the night, and even land when the pilot cannot use ordinary vision.

He told me that the on-board computers together with the GPS (global positioning system) are able to guide the flight towards the destination once the pilot enters the co-ordinates of the destination airport. Moreover, the computer operated navigation system works out the safest, most economic and most convenient route, within the confines of permission to overfly certain countries, allowable altitudes, avoidance of war zones, and taking into account other flights operating at the time.

I have since established that the GPS system is anchored on signals emitted by orbiting communication satellites which house very accurate atomic clocks which send signals continuously to a receiver in the aircraft. The receiver, aided by computers, uses the time difference in the signals sent by at least 6 of the satellites to calculate the aircraft’s position.

This determination is coupled together with the output of the IRS (Inertial Reference System) which comprises three laser gyroscopes positioned at right angles to each other and are able to detect any azimuthal movement of the plane. The on-board computers translate this into translational movement on the ground.

The plane’s Flight Management Computer takes the positions computed by the GPS and IRS and computes the actual location of the aircraft which is updated 30 times a second. Through this process, the pilot knows exactly where he/she is at any time. By the aid of other detecting and measuring devices, the forces exerted by wind are also taken into account to guide the plane accurately to the desired direction.

When other flights are using the airspace in the same area, the flights are allocated different altitudes to avoid collisions. Computers in these different flights even “talk” to each other so that when they “feel” that a collision is imminent, one becomes master and the other a slave, and the slave gets directed to move higher or lower.

Computers store all operations and communications on the flight into a data recorder and a flight recorder or black box, so as to guide investigations if an accident occurs.

Flying has been made quite a safe mode of travel by extensive use of ICT to aid navigation and flight operation, considering the low accident rate compared with the huge volume of passenger traffic.

ICT use in aviation extends to booking, scheduling, flight control, payments, radar operation, weight determination, balance of the aircraft, loading, altitude measurement, instrument landing, communication to ground-based beacons, communication to ground-based stations, instrument readings and display, warning signals, fire detection, engine performance monitoring, emergency operation, cargo tagging and tracking, etc.

All these were once only manually operated, and it is difficulty to appreciate just how pilots managed without the aid of ICT. When we study ICT, we advance the boundaries of such a wonderful industry and contribute massively to easing travel and cargo transportation.

Dr.Terry Kahuma is the Dean Faculty of Science and Technology at Victoria University Kampala

What Kind Of Entrepreneur Are You?

The role of entrepreneurship in the developing economies is progressively becoming significant. In developed and some developing nations, the advantages of entrepreneurship have been well recognised as it forms the bedrock of the industrialisation process.

Entrepreneurship as a field of study has grown fabulously over the past decade in Africa. Entrepreneurship development aids poverty alleviation when employment opportunities are created via new entrepreneurship venture start-up or the growth of existing ones.

This eventually lead to increase in social wealth through the emergence of new industries, new technology, new market, new institutional form, net increase in real productivity, and increase in income which culminates in higher living standards for the population.

What is entrepreneurship?

The process of seeking out opportunities that are unique in the microenvironment, organizing the resources needed to exploit them and building an organization to maintain the goal-seeking drive that initiated the venture is a normal view of entrepreneurship.

There is much debate and introspection when it comes to defining an entrepreneur.

Who is an Entrepreneur?

Entrepreneur is an ordinary person with an extra ordinary idea. With the idea, he has the vision on the idea and has passion to pursue the dreams. If he fails, he has the potential to bounce back.

An entrepreneur is an individual who creates something of value at a time and place where there was no such thing before. He or she initiates the development of a desirable product or service and then builds an organization to exploit it.

Types of entrepreneur

  1. Start-up entrepreneur: Start-up is an entrepreneurial venture which is typically a newly emerged, fast-growing business that aims to meet a marketplace need by developing a viable business model around innovative product, service, process or a platform. There are four subcategories of start-up entrepreneurs: inventors, the innovator, the marketer and the opportunist.

Inventors define a unique, new concept, invention or methodology. The invention may have been intuitively developed, the consequence of serendipity or the result of hours of application, as with the cold fusion process.

Innovator identifies a new technology or methodology to solve a new or existing problem. He creates solutions from scientific or technical development the goes on to market these in an industry.

Marketer identifies a need in the market place and satisfies it with a product that is newly introduced into the market or one that substitute more efficiently for existing products or services as with trivial pursuit.

Opportunist essentially a broker, an arbitrageur, matches needs with services and a commission.

  1. Joint Venture Entrepreneurs: In this form, entrepreneur takes the risk of introducing an established concept (product or service) into a new environment. An example would be the creation of a new franchise in a strange territory as with such as the opening of McDonald’s in Pushkin square, Moscow, in 1990. The Russia Russian government own owns 51 percent and McDonald’s Canada owns 49 percent. In this case George Chen, the Company’s Canadian president, assumed the entrepreneurial role of introducing an inherently American fast-food service into the then solid, authoritarian soviet society.
  2. Take over entrepreneurs: Many entrepreneurs begin their journey to success by acquiring an existing business. Ted turner, Turner begins his odyssey at 29 years of age by acquiring his father’s bankrupt billboard advertising company in 1969. He parlayed this into a number of radio stations in the Atlanta, Georgia, market as a part of the Turner broadcasting system, which now includes CNN-the international News service.
  3. The Intrepreneur: Another name for intrepreneur is corporate entrepreneur. The role of corporate entrepreneur is to renew the organisation by introducing and promoting innovation that leads to managerial productivity, new productivity, new products, and new activity. Very often this individual is a lone ranger attempting to move the corporation or bureau-racy to advanced position that management has yet to recognize. On the other hand, has more often a venture team builder who creates the environments that bring with it success. The last decade has seen heightened acceptability of the role of the entrepreneurial manager in the corporation. In defining his guidelines for a changing society Peter Drucker notes that “we need men who can build a new structure of entrepreneurship on the meaningful foundations laid these last fifty years”
  4. Serial entrepreneur: An entrepreneur who continuously comes up with new ideas and starts new businesses. As opposed to a typical entrepreneur, who will often come up with an idea, start the company, and then see it through and play an important role in the day to day functioning of the new company, a serial entrepreneur will often come up with the idea and get things started, but then give responsibility to someone else and move on to a new idea and a new venture. In Uganda such entrepreneurs are Patrick Bitature and Omar Ahmed (Mandela). Patrick Bitature is a businessman, entrepreneur and industrialist. Bitature started his business empire with a single company, Simba Telecom, then a retail chain dealership, in MTN air-time. From there he expanded into broadcasting, with the acquisition of Dembe FM radio station, followed by Simba Electronics. He also has interests in insurance, banking, hotels and resorts. Today, his businesses have subsidiaries in Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania and Nigeria.

Omar Ahmed on the other hand owns Mandela Group. His City Tyres is one of the biggest and most successful tyre outlets in the country. His other business includes City Retread, City Oil and Café Javas. Cafes Javas found at City Oil Wandegeya, Nakumatt Shopping Mall and Kampala road have been lauded for their quality food. Mandela’s involvement in his own business and his insistence on quality customer care has contributed highly to his success.

  1. Social Entrepreneur: Social entrepreneurship can be defined as “the process of using entrepreneurial and business skills to create innovative approaches to social problems.” Social entrepreneurs seek out business opportunities that create wealth, but also improve society or make a positive impact in communities. He considers himself a social entrepreneur to the extent that all his ventures, beginning with offline and online business, have focused on the double bottom line: financial returns (doing well) and social returns (doing well). A triple bottom line social venture would also deliver healthy environmental returns. In Uganda, example includes some of the serial entrepreneurs mentioned above. These entrepreneurs are both Social and serial in nature.


It must be noted that entrepreneurship is an interdisciplinary pursuit. Entrepreneurial opportunities may arise from various fields, including but not limited to architecture, education, engineering, natural sciences, media, communications and music. Pursuing these opportunities requires building a team with a diverse knowledge base, including finance, management, law, and technology. The question is what kind of entrepreneur are you?

By Dr Omotayo Adegbuyi PhD

Dr. Omotayo Adegbuyi is dean faculty of business and management at Victoria University

He is also a marketing consultant, Author and Entrepreneur.





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