Beyond Access: Breaking Barriers For Women In Agriculture

By Jemimah Njuki

I first met Memory in Kasungu, in the Northern part of Malawi. Memory, a mother of six, farmed on a one acre piece of land alongside her husband. Every year, they planted maize and beans, often from seed that they had saved from the last season, or bought in the market.

The previous season however, they had been lucky. A government subsidy program had provided them with improved seed and fertilizer, they had expanded their farm and the harvest was good.

When I asked Memory, how life had changed for her and her family, her answer was not as simple as I had expected. Yes, the family had harvested more maize, more than they had ever harvested. But this had come with additional costs.

Her workload had increased, it meant she had to spend more time on the farm doing tasks that men shunned as women’s work, such as weeding and harvesting, this in addition to looking after her six children.

Her husband had sold most of the maize and beans, despite her pleas to save some of it for food in case the next season did not go well. They had quarreled, and for a few weeks, she had gone to live with her parents.

Her husband argued he was the head of the household, and he had a right to make decisions on the sale of the maize. After all, the land belonged to him, and to his father before that.

While access to inputs and technologies is important for women, Memory’s story shows us that it is equally important to address the harmful social and cultural norms that prevent women from making decisions that can improve their lives, such as owning property, land, and controlling finances.

The future of our continent depends on it. In sub-Saharan Africa, gender inequality costs us an estimated US$ 95 billion a year.

Nowhere is this more evident than in the agriculture sector, which employs 63% of economically active women. We know, for example, that if women were given the same access to productive resources such as fertilizers, machinery and information as men, they could increase yields on their farms by 20 to 30 percent.

But closing this gap in access to resources does not automatically lead to gender equality and the empowerment of women. Explicit efforts are needed to ensure that the engagement of women in agriculture delivers benefits for women. Only then will it benefit entire families, societies and economies.

First, we need to address the enormous burden of work for rural women. In developing countries in Africa and Asia women typically work between 12 to 13 hours per week more than men doing farm work, care work. In sub-Saharan Africa women spend about 40 billion hours a year collecting water.

In Tanzania alone, increasing access to water would free up women’s working hours and, if converted into paid employment, would be equivalent to 1 million new full-time jobs for women. Investments in improved agricultural technologies can also improve efficiency of household tasks and save women’s time.

A project funded by IDRC in Kenya and Uganda, developed precooked bean products that reduced cooking time for beans, a common source of protein, from 3 hours to 15 minutes saving on women’s time, water and firewood. We need more investments like this that reduce the burden of work for rural women.

Second, we need to address the gender and social norms that still determine what a woman’s place is in terms of household decision making and ownership of property.

In Kenya for example, despite a very progressive constitution that guarantees inheritance of land by sons and daughters, only one percent of land titles are held by women with another five percent held by women jointly with men.

In much of sub-Saharan Africa, a society’s perception is still that women and girls should not own land. Approaches that challenge these norms and engage men are being tested in a few places.

In Malawi and Zambia, for example, a fisheries project funded by IDRC has been using theatre to shift perceptions on women’s roles in the fisheries sector. Decision making by women on use of income has risen by 32 percentage points. Projects like these that seek to understand and tackle entrenched social norms should be replicated.

Finally, we need to invest in data and evidence on what works for empowering women in agriculture. In 2013, USAID’s Feed the Future program developed the Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index.

Using this index, people working in agriculture and development can track what impact their innovations have on women’s empowerment in the sector. Such data can tell us what is working and what needs to be taken to scale.

As the agriculture community in Africa converges at the African Green Revolution Forum in Abidjan in September, I hope that we not only discuss what women can do for agriculture, but what agriculture, and we in the agriculture community can do to ensure that agriculture serves women, their families, communities and economies.

Dr Jemimah Njuki is a Senior Program Specialist at Canada’s International Development Research Centre where she manages a portfolio of agriculture and food security, and women's empowerment projects. She is an Aspen News Voices Fellow.

Courses Need To Be Backed By A Solid Reputation Of Research

The Vice Chancellor of Victoria University Kampala Dr. Krishna N. Sharma has said that good courses taught in high learning institutions ‘must be backed by backed by a solid reputation of research.

The Vice Chancellor was speaking to this website in an exclusive interview just as the Ruparelia owned Jinja road based university kicks of a fresh semester.

“Victoria University is a research active institution where students enjoy the benefits of working with research experts who are also teaching, thus ensuring that the latest developments underpin and inform students.

Through our research reputation we have developed strategic partnerships with international institutions thus giving our students a truly global perspective on developments in their field.”

Victoria University is an Institution of higher learning licensed by National Council for Higher Education. And to qualify for the Dr Sudhir Ruparelia Scholarship Grant, a candidates must meet certain selection criteria.

Victoria University has a dedicated and experienced International Student support team which offers a wide range of support for International Students from airport Collection, orientation programmes, Ugandan VISA Advice and renewals as well as Social Activities.

The University also offer a Foundation course for international students from non English speaking countries.

We Train And Prepare Our Students For Global Job Market – Victoria University

Victoria University is preparing their students to be able to compete and get jobs not only in Uganda but also anywhere else in the world, the vice chancellor Dr. Krishnna N. Sharma told secondary school students at the Victoria University Open Day last week.

“In our classes, you can find about eight or ten nationalities so when we are teaching a concept we are not only thinking about Kampala but international scenarios. Our teacher – student ratio is very strong; we have a smaller group so the lecturer knows each and every student,” Dr. Sharma said in his address at the Open Day.

Dr. Sharma reveals that they are collaborating with international universities in India, Pakistan, Mauritius, Canada and Sweden to give their students international experience and global skills.

“We are sending our students to different countries so that they can have international exposure,” he added. He explained that at Victoria University passing on knowledge to students is more prioritized than students passing exams when they have attained no skills and workplace experience.

“Are you going to look for the job only in Kampala, no, we stay in a global village and you should know what is happening elsewhere. We prepare our students for international market,”

Dr. Sharma was recently confirmed as vice chancellor having briefly served as dean faculty of health science. He is an academician and author with medical background with more than hundred publications. He has supervised more than 60 researches.

“I have many dreams for the university as a Vice Chancellor, and I am sure I am going to take the University with the help of my colleagues. My focus still remains on research, innovation, publication and outreach.”

Victoria University located on Jinja road has four functional faculties offering a wide range of practical courses. It has the faculty of humanities and social sciences, faculty of business and management, faculty of science and technology and faculty of health sciences.


Take Necessary Precautions Before Considering Nuclear Energy

The demand for reliable, affordable and accessible energy that meets the needs of the present generation in an increasing one as demand to reduce poverty, improve health, increase productivity and promote economic growth, this has already reached desperate levels due to challenges of energy insecurity. While assessing the current energy options, debates on whether nuclear energy offers the best alternative to satisfy the needs of the world’s energy demands or will end up as an energy that resulted into extinction of humanity on earth. 

While the debate goes on, recently the government of Uganda signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Russia rolling out plans to exploit Uganda’s Uranium, a resource used to produce nuclear energy resources. If all goes as planned, Uganda will become among the first African country to exploit nuclear energy in recent times. 

According to Surveys from the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development, Uganda has about 52,000 square kilometers (sq. km) of Uranium deposits, with 22,000 sq. kilometers in the Lake Albert region, 18,000 sq. kilometers in Buganda and Tooro regions, and 12,000 sq. km in Karagwe-Ankole. 

With the challenges of climate change and energy insecurity around the world, Nuclear energy has the potential to generate the much-needed energy with small amount of uranium to power the world to secure energy future.  In fact, due to its efficiency and abidance in nature, it has the potential to solve the worlds energy challenges and contribute to mitigating climate change, its emits less or no greenhouse gases into the atmosphere as compared to other non-renewable energy sources. 

However, to sustainably it, more advanced technology must be employed with advanced precautionary measures employed because in the event of an accident, radioactive material from Uranium could be released into the environment and its waste can remain radioactive and hazardous to health for thousands of years with visible impacts across generations. 

Despite the facts that it’s the energy for 21st century, it has been characterized by a number of disasters that have left people worse off than they were. For instance, Physicians for Social Responsibility (PSR) a an American based humanitarian organisation estimates that the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear disaster in Ukraine displaced nearly 220,000 people from their homes, and the radioactive fallout from the accident destroyed 4,440 square kilometers of agricultural land and 6,820 square kilometers of forests in Belarus and Ukraine were unusable.  Further, the Fukushima nuclear accidents of 2011 that was caused by a powerful earthquake and Tsunami killed more than 20,000 lives and affected different sectors of the economy. 

If we consider developing nuclear energy, it is important for government to borrow lessons from the best countries, invest heavily on advanced technology and built competent human resource with capacity to contain any adverse effects the plant may have on the environment. 

Otherwise, it is clear that renewable energy technology including solar, wind, geothermal, hydro energy among others offer the best alternatives and are safe to both environment and people and have the potential to power the world into an energy secure future. 

By Samuel Okulony

Programmes and Research Coordinator (Environmentalist)

Africa Institute for Energy Governance

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Avoid Past Mistakes In The Buliisa Ongoing Oil Compensation Processes

This week, during our field visit in Ngwedo Sub county, Buliisa district by the Civic Response on Environment and Development (CRED), I noticed various posters of cut-off date announcements for the Resettlement Action Plan (RAP 1) Industrial Area.

According to the information on the posters, the final cut-off date for the area demarcated for the industrial area was 16th May 2017. The cut-off date is when the eligibility for resettlement and compensation is established and completed. After the cut-off date, any social and economic activities put up in the demarcated industrial area are not eligible for compensation or resettlement. Any new persons that move or settle into the demarcated area will equally not be eligible for compensation or resettlement.

As government and Joint Venture Partners(CNOOC Uganda Ltd, Total E &P Uganda and Tullow Oil Uganda Ltd move in to the development phase that will lead in to the production of oil, one of the facilities to be developed is the Industrial Area. The development of the Industrial Area which includes the Central Processing Facility (CPF), access roads, operational camps and yards will require permanent acquisition of land.

Total E&P Uganda and Tullow oil Uganda, assisted by ATACAMA Consulting in association with Synergy Global Limited and Nomad Consulting have identified and completed the  demarcation of the land required for the Industrial Area within Ngwedo Sub county, Buliisa district.

We appreciate the ongoing government’s efforts towards this milestone. This presents a tremendous opportunity for national development.  The processing of oil will generate more revenues which, if well utilized, will enable the government to provide the much needed social and economic services such as employment, quality health and education, clean water, good roads and many other amenities to improve the living standards of Ugandans. However, while the cut-off date for RAP 1 Industrial Area was set, none of the affected people and local leaders I talked too seems to know exactly when the compensations will be paid.

People claim they were told not to build any new houses or grow crops for they will not be considered for compensation. Yet, they have not yet been communicated when they will receive their compensation.

The question is; why do the project implementers find it ok to setting the cut-off date without disclosing when affected people will be compensated?  Which of the two is more important and of interest to the affected people? The residents of Ngwedo would be interested to know when they will get compensated or resettled.

Setting the cut-off date without disclosing to people when they will be compensated is similar to denying them their rights to land. This is because you have restricted them from conducting certain activities on their own land.  That’s stopping people from using their property before compensation which is in contravention of Article 26 of the Ugandan Constitution. 

Article 26 of the Constitution provides that: (1)         Every person has a right to own property, and (2)          No person shall be compulsorily deprived of property or any interest in or right over property of any description except where the following conditions are satisfied (a) the taking of possession or acquisition is necessary for public use, (b) the compulsory taking of possession or acquisition of property is made under a law which makes provision for prompt payment of fair and adequate compensation, prior to the taking of possession or acquisition of the property. 

Experience from Kabaale Hoima, the refinery affected area show that, the project implementers set a cut-off date of 2nd June 2012 upon which any development made on the land was not to be compensated. The government made the announcement for compensation of 29SKM of land (involving 7,118 people) in 2012 and the first phase of the payment was effected in 2014 that is  2 years later which resulted into a lot of grievances.

Since 2012, the 93 families have been waiting for their full resettlement package – an alternative piece of land and a modern house for each household but for now five years, they are still waiting. This is torturing mentally and emotionally as it makes it difficult for the affected people to plan for their families. 

In addition to setting the cut off dates, Project implementers should  give  information regarding when people shall leave, how much they shall be paid as compensation or where they shall be resettled and work towards the set timeframe. This way, affected people will benefit and be certain about their future. These people need to plan for their families but this will be impossible with no knowledge of when they will be compensated and relocated.

Most residents of Buliisa have grass thatched houses which requires one to keep renovating from time to time. If compensation takes longer, people’s houses will collapse on them as they wait to be compensated and resettled. 

The Ngwedo affected residents need assurance that the payment would be timely and fair. Further, Government and companies should appreciate that as third parties, CSOs can play a very big role when it comes to resolution of community development challenges and problems.

They should therefore partner to organize and facilitate discussions with communities, offer capacity building programs to enable communities to have various alternative investment opportunities, verify the payment and payment procedures with the communities, resolve conflicts among others.

Doris Atwijukire
Civic Response on Environment and Development (CRED)
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Bunyoro Minister, Kinyara Sugar Grilled Over Exploitation Of Farmers


By George Busiinge

Kinyara Sugar Factory officials, the Resident District Commissioner (RDC) Masindi and the state minister for Bunyoro affairs, Ernest Kiiza, were last week grilled by the district leaders and the sugar cane farmers’ representatives over exploitation of farmers by Kinyara.

The trio was grilled on Wednesday during a stakeholders meeting that was organized by the Resident District Commissioner Masindi, Godfrey Nyakahuma at Kabalega Resort.

Speaker after speaker blamed Kinyara for failing to handle issues which oppress sugar cane farmers which include under paying farmers, delayed harvesting of cane, delayed payment among others.

Cosmas Byaruhanga, the chairperson LCV, Masindi district, accused Kinyara Sugar management for not being transparent noting that as leaders in Masindi have engaged Kinyara over many issues all in vein adding that Kinyara does this because state protects them.

Byraruhanga added that unless Kinyara comes and start protecting the farmers that is when the farmers will be relieved of the tribulations they are going through. He added that what is hurting them is the state to protect the investor at the expense of the farmers saying that the state is a 100% leaning on the side of investors.

Robert Atugonza, the chairperson Masindi district out growers Association, said that if Kinyara doesn’t style up its operations, farmers will cause a demonstration noting that is optimistic that this will cause scarcity of sugar in the country.

Atugonza added that they are going to organize a demonstration because Kinyara is paying cane farmers peanuts adding that when the time for the demonstration reaches, the RDC should grant them permission such that they can show the world the exploitation they are going through.

Jos wamara a sugar cane farmer from Bwijanga Sub County explained that farmers are being exploited because this matter might have not been brought to the attention of the president maintaining that what they want is timely harvesting and payment farmers.

He added that if these issues were addressed to the president, he wouldn’t have issued a directive stopping sugar cane from moving outside Masindi. One of the resolutions which were reached at was the RDC Masindi Godfrey Nyakahuma gave an ultimatum of one week to the haulage manager to have eliminated spillage of cane or be arrested.

Speaking during the same meeting, Visnu, the Finance controller Kinyara also who represented the General Manager accepted to look into the issues which were addressed to him noting that they are going to ensure that they improve where they have not been moving well.

Ernest Kiiza the Bunyoro affairs Minister promised to take up the issues distressing the farmers and also dismissed allegations revealed by Cosmas Byarruhanga the LCV masindi district that the state has done nothing but exploiting them at the expense of the farmers.

Learners Need To Think Out Of The Box – University Dean

What you study in school can hardly contribute 20% of your success, the rest of the things come from your attitude towards the world, how committed and motivated you are, therefore students need to think out of the box in order to excel in life, a university dean told a regional student camp gathering in Kampala

The advice was recently given by Dr. Krishna Sharma, the Dean Faculty of Health Sciences, Victoria University Kampala, while addressing students from Ugandan Schools and Neighboring Country Schools on success tips during the official opening of the 2017, Reach a Hand Students #GetUpSpeakOut Camp at Hana International School.

“It doesn’t matter if you score 90% in class. It’s not going to determine your future, it’s not going to guarantee success. Don’t go into rat race of marks and percentages, rather than that, focus on the cross pollination of knowledge. Be time conscious – have time management and motivated. Try to be skillful and useful rather than a machine of producing good marks in class.”

“I started early in life, at 18 I published my first book. Trust and have faith in your ideas. Don’t fear to fail. My friends and family had faith in my ideas. One of my book project was rejected by more than 25 publishers and I decided to publish it on my own. This book become my first best seller.

When that book became the best seller, it gave me confidence. If over 25 publishers failed to evaluate my book, it is possible that lecturers can fail to evaluate students. We are producing for the market therefore the best evaluator is the employer,” the academician told students from Uganda to Burundi, Kenya and Rwanda.

The annual youth camp organized by Reach A Hand Uganda is one of the many engagements the University has put in place to ensure they facilitate a smooth transition of students from secondary to University life. They have visited various schools like Vienna College Namugongo, St Peters SS Namugongo, Bishop Cyprian Kihangire and Nalya SS so that they uplift these youngsters.

“This is where our first clients (students) come from. We equip these students with the skills and assist them before leaving secondary school to join university. We give them different competencies and skills. This is what we take to them.” Abdul Kalanzi, marketing and recruitment specialist at Victoria University said in an interview.  


Graduates Get Employment Tips

There is always that desire to get your dream job right after university. Actually many young people refuse to take on lesser jobs waiting for the big dream job to come their way. However Rajiv Ruparelia, the promoter of Victoria University thinks otherwise.

While speaking at the second graduation of Victoria University at Kabira Country Club last week said this could be a wrong approach most times to many graduates. Rajiv, a youthful successful entrepreneur, advised that starting at the lower ranks of a working environment prepares you to grow professionally.

“The mistake many of you make is that you want to be Managing Directors after university, no, this is wrong. Start at the lower ranks and grow within the system. This prepares you to excel and gives you experience.” Rajiv, also Managing Director of Ruparelia Group said. 

Twenty three students walked away with degrees in different disciplines while two took home diplomas. The university acting Vice Chancellor Godfrey Nyakana said about 150 students earned certificates in different courses but most notably in oil and gas management.

Rajiv Ruparelia, the promoter of Victoria University

Three students earned a bachelor of nursing science, five students graduated with bachelor of midwifery science, six students were awarded a bachelor of public health and one student got a bachelor of computer science.

Also, one student got a bachelor of IT, two students got a bachelor of banking and finance, and other two students got a bachelor of business administration while one student each got a diploma in social work and social administration and business information systems.

The Chancellor of Victoria University in Kampala Dr. Martin Aliker called on graduating students of Victoria University to add value to society by being compassionate.  

“I want to take this opportunity to thank parents who have come here for supporting and funding the education of your children. To the students go out and add value to society. Be compassionate.” Dr Aliker counseled graduates at the graduation ceremony.

Joseph Nyakaana, the university vice chancellor said the University currently boosts of 199 students undertaking studies in the four faculties. He advised graduates not to sit on their laurels because they have graduated. He noted that graduating is no achievement compared to what awaits them in the employment world.





Ugandans Need To Do Better In Promoting Uganda

As the International Associations of Athletics Federation World Cross-country event that was held over the weekend unfolded, there was so much noise about what could have been done to promote it even better than we did. The event falls under the sports tourism section that Uganda neglects when it comes to promoting what the country offers.

An event of such heavy magnitude brings so many nations in one country with some of the biggest media houses camping in the city to get ready for the final day. Away from covering the city with Ugandan flags like we do during independence week, what more could have been done?

Maybe most people do not understand how PR is for events and marketing, but without it most campaigns are not relatable to the masses. Well planned PR strategies give a human face to whatever you try to market. Sheilah Nduhukire, a journalist with NTV Uganda, remarked on Saturday how it is important to not assume the media is an extension of your PR department. If you do not make effort to reach out and give them a storyline, how are they going to help you create a big cloud of publicity? You do not put up banners, billboards and street pole advertising for a big event just days to the d-day.

Journalists are there to carry 10% of your marketing but you are supposed to do the heavy lifting. The PR plans and how to execute them should be something worked on for months before the campaign kick-starts. Do not expect journalists to be there ready to take whatever you throw at them, they have many companies and issues in the country to cover.

The whispers and meeting about the IAAF event started at around December 2016, although the actual planning started in January 2017. Yet, it didn't look as well planned. According to someone involved in the planning, the event was a battle of wills of who of the major bodies is above the other when it comes to execution. With cards held close to their own offices, how do you expect to jointly use a huge event to promote the country when everyone wants to take individual credit.

Actual Branding
When you looked at the track where the athletes were running from, all you saw were placards of the Ministry of Education And Sports, Tourism Uganda to mention but a few. Everyone knows that sports fall under the Ministry of education and sports so why not put up well branded pictures of what the sector has done to promote sports in the country? Happy children running track in a stadium or maybe the cranes playing ball? Something that speaks work and the brand the ministry is supposed to advertise. Instead of Ugandan Tourism banners, why not throw in beautiful pictures of the scenery. The commentator subtly promoted Uganda more than most Ugandans did at the event. This is evident in most of the international events that Uganda hosts, we have not become creative with branding yet we have so much to play with.

We usually use these huge events to promote our vast cultures with the Ndere Troupe always ready to show some Kiganda/ Kigisu or Kikiga dance for the guests; but why not go even further by promoting the other artistry? The ushers could have been dressed in something sporty made by one of our designers in the country. If you had looked closely you could have noticed the beautiful ladies handing over medals to the guests were dressed in gorgeous heels. Why weren't those ladies wearing some of those well made heels with Ugandan fabrics on them? Some of these small things people pick up on when looking at the TV when the event is dragging.

Planned Tours
Yes we are very good at showing people around our country but we need to do a well planned tour for the visitors. When most people travel to new countries, some of the first things they want to try out is the local cuisine. Yet, the athletes were being sent fast food restaurants when the local food ones were just in close proximity.
If the athletes can't make it to the countryside to see the animals plus the lush greenery of the hills. Bring it to them, all those beautiful visuals of the country would have worked well around the track.

How can a country that has such a rich history neglect cataloguing and taking care of it. The Uganda museum is now a place you don't want to sit in for longer than 20 minutes. Most of the beautiful relics are dusty and left to rot while the toilets leave you wishing you didn't drink all that water. We can do better than just blankets and wine at the Uganda Museum. It should be part of our most valued sites in the country, it should be respected and protected.

That being said, congratulations to Jacob Kiplimo for that Gold win. You made history.




Find Sustainable Solutions To Fight Climate Change Impacts

The climate change debate has globally continued to dominate the world agenda aims to finding the lasting solutions to the effects and impacts that is threatening the billions of lives in both developed and developing countries.

This week the Conference of Parties (COP) 22 will be taking place in Marrakech Morocco where negotiators around the world will convene and discus among others strategies in implementing the Paris Agreement on climate change that was formulated during the COP 21 in France. In Paris Agreement, countries committed to reduce their carbon a missions and establishes guidelines for international collaboration on climate change.

As the world leaders commence with the discussions in the COP22, Uganda is already battling with the impacts of climate change that has already driven three million people into famine in the cattle corridor; some of the worst affected districts include Isingiro and Kiruhura among others.

The prolonged drought that has mainly affected the cattle corridor stretching from south western to north eastern Uganda is primarily responsible for famine,  as a result nearly Seven million more people are currently vulnerable to famine; the state minister for disaster preparedness Hon Musa Ecweru re-affirmed this last week during his interview on NTV Uganda show.  

As much as government responded by delivering relief inform of food items to the worst affected households and further assuring the country that no person will this time die of hunger, these are temporary solutions that government needs to rethink and find sustainable ones.

It should be noted that, Uganda has persistently suffered from drought and flood that often result into famine for the past decade with Karamoja and Teso sub regions being the most affected with loss of lives and livestock evidenced.

As the country continues to grapple with the challenges of climate change, and negotiations take off in Morocco, it is important for the government of Uganda to reflect and focus on finding sustainable solutions to climate change impacts, which can be done through building communities capacity to adapt to climate change impacts especially in agricultural sector for this matter.

Climate change adaptation can be described as any adjustments to actual or expected climate change hazards and its effects in order to reduce harm or exploit potential benefits. It can enable communities to withstand these impacts and save government billions of money as well.

It should be noted that agricultural sector is the most vulnerable to climate change hazards such as floods, drought, high temperatures among others and these impacts have the potential to slow both economic and social development of the country.

In order to build communities capacities to adapt, the adaptations must be informed by Climate science that will guide to identify the magnitude of the risk and identify the appropriate adaptation strategy. In additions, communities must be involved in the planning and identification process so as to create ownership of the initiatives and to have a better understanding of the increased risks and uncertainties that climate change brings.

In addition, strengthening of local community capacity to access climate related information, managing risk and uncertainty of the impacts is of significant importance in this struggle. Finally, Civil Society Organizations should continue to lobby and advocate for formulation and effective implementation of climate change laws and policies in the country. 

Samuel Okulony

Programs and research coordinator / climate change expert

Africa Institute for Energy Governance

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